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Linking Education and Neuroscience

Our Publications

Electronic versions are provided as a professional courtesy to ensure timely dissemination of academic work for individual, noncommercial purposes. Copyright and all rights therein reside with the respective copyright holders, as stated within each paper. These files may not be reposted without permission.


Simner, J. & Hubbard, E.M. (2013) The Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.  The Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia was one of the British Medical Association’s Highly Commended Book Award Winners in the Psychiatry Category for 2014.

Publications by Year


Matthews PG & Hubbard EM. (in press, 2016). Making space for spatial proportions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, DOI: 10.1177/0022219416679133

Hubbard, E.M., Matthews, P.G. & Samek, A. (2016). Using online compound interest tools to improve financial literacy. Journal of Economic Education, 47(2):106-120. DOI:10.1080/00220485.2016.1146097

Matthews, P.M., Lewis, M.R. & Hubbard, E.M. (2016). Individual differences in nonsymbolic ratio processing predict symbolic math performance. Psychological Science, 27(2):191-202. doi:10.1177/0956797615617799


Lewis, M.R., Matthews, P.M. & Hubbard, E.M. (2015). Neurocognitive Architectures and the Nonsymbolic Foundations of Fractions Understanding. In D.B. Berch, D.C. Geary, and K.M. Koepke (Eds.) Development of Mathematical Cognition-Neural Substrates and Genetic Influences. (p. 141-160) Elsevier. ISBN: 978-0128018712.

Simner, J. Carmichael, D.A, Hubbard, E.M., Morris, Z & Lawrie, S.M. (2015). Rates of white matter hyperintensities compatible with the radiological profile of multiple sclerosis within self-referred synesthete populations. Neurocase. 21(3):322-330 (DOI:10.1080/13554794.2014.892625).


Viarouge, A., Hubbard, E.M. & Dehaene, S. (2014). The organization of spatial reference frames involved in the SNARC effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 67(8):1484-1499. (DOI:10.1080/17470218.2014.897358)

Oberman, L.M., Hubbard, E.M. & McCleery, J.P. (2014). Associative learning alone is insufficient for the evolution and maintenance of the human mirror neuron system. Commentary on Cook et al., Mirror Neurons: From Origin to Function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 37(2): 212 – 213. (doi: 10.1017/S0140525X13002422).

Viarouge, A., Hubbard, E.M. & McCandliss, B.D. (2014). The cognitive mechanisms of the SNARC effect: An individual differences approach. PLOS One. 9(4): e95756 (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095756).

Hubbard, E.M., Brang, D. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2014). The cross-activation theory at ten. In M. Josè De Cordoba, D. Riccò & S. Day (eds.). Synaesthesia: Theoretical, Artistic and Scientific Foundations, Granada, Spain, July 2014, pp. 176-196. Print Edition, ISBN: 978-84-939054-6-0, eBook Edition, ISBN: 978-84-939054-9-1.


Oberman, L.M., McCleery, J.P., Hubbard, E.M., Bernier, R. Wiersema, J.R., Raymaekers, R. & Pineda, J.A. (2013). Developmental changes in mu suppression to observed and executed actions in autism spectrum disorders. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 8(3):300-304. (doi:10.1093/scan/nsr097).

Hubbard, E.M. (2013). Synaesthesia and Functional Imaging. In J. Simner. & E.M. Hubbard (Eds). The Oxford Handbook of Synaesthesia. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199603329 (HB).

Simner, J. & Hubbard, E.M. (2013). Synaesthesia in School–aged Children. In J. Simner. & E.M. Hubbard (Eds). The Oxford Handbook of Synaesthesia. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199603329 (HB).

Hubbard, E.M. (2013). Synesthesia [1000 word entry]. In H. Pashler (Ed.) Encyclopedia of the Mind. (p. 725–727) Thousand Oaks, CA. SAGE Reference.


Hubbard, E.M., Brang, D. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2012) Diez años de la teoría de la interactivación. in M. José De Córdoba & Dina Riccò (Eds.) Sinestesia: Los Fundamentos Teóricos, Artísticos y Sientíficos. Granada: Ediciones Fundación Internacional Artecittà. ISBN–13: 978–84–939054–1–5.


Hubbard, E.M., Brang, D. & Ramachandran. V.S. (2011). The cross-activation theory at 10. Journal of Neuropsychology. 5(2):152-177. (doi:10.1111/j.1748-6653.2011.02014).


Viarouge, A., Hubbard, E.M., Dehaene, S. & Sackur, J. (2010). Number line compression and the illusory perception of random numbers. Experimental Psychology. 57(6):446-454. (doi:10.1027/1618-3169/a000055)

Brang, D., Hubbard, E.M., Coulson, S., Huang, M. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2010). Magnetoencepalography reveals early activation of V4 in grapheme-color synesthesia. Neuroimage. 53(1):268–274 (doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.06.008).

Williams, L.E., Light, G.A., Hubbard, E.M., Braff, D.L. & Ramachandran,V.S. (2010). Superior size-weight illusion performance in patients with schizophrenia: Evidence for deficits in forward models. Schizophrenia Research. 121(1-3):101-106 (doi:10.1016/j.schres.2009.10.021). Supplementary Materials

Bertelletti, I., Hubbard, E.M. & Zorzi, M. (2010). Implicit versus explicit interference effects in a number-color synesthete. Cortex. 46(2): 170–177 (doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2008.12.009).


Hubbard, E.M., Ranzini, M., Piazza, M. & Dehaene, S. (2009). What information is critical to elicit interference in number-form synesthesia? Cortex: Special Section on Synaesthesia and Visuo-spatial Forms, 45(10):1200-1216 (doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2009.06.011).

Ranzini, M., Dehaene, S., Piazza, M. & Hubbard, E.M. (2009). Neural mechanisms of attentional shifts due to irrelevant spatial and numerical cues. Neuropsychologia, 47(12):2615-2624 (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.05.011).

Knops, A., Thirion, B., Hubbard, E.M., Michel, V. & Dehaene, S. (2009). Recruitment of an area involved in eye movements during mental arithmetic. Science, 324(5934):1583–1585 (doi:10.1126/science.1171599). Supplementary Materials

Hubbard, E. M., Piazza, M., Pinel, P. & Dehaene, S. (2009). Numerical and spatial intuitions: A role for posterior parietal cortex? in L. Tommasi, L. Nadel and M.A. Peterson (Eds.) Cognitive Biology: Evolutionary and Developmental Perspectives on Mind, Brain and Behavior. (pp. 221–246). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Hubbard, E.M., Diester, I., Cantlon, J.F., Ansari, D., van Opstal, F. & Troiani, V. (2008). The evolution of numerical cognition: from number neurons to linguistic quantifiers. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(46):11819–11824 (doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3808-08.2008).

Hubbard, E.M. (2008). Synaesthesia: The sounds of moving patterns. Current Biology, 18(15):R657-R659 (doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.06.035).

This is a Dispatch on Saenz and Koch (2008). The sound of change: visually induced auditory synesthesia. Current Biology, 18(15): R650-R651 in which they identified a previously unreported form of synesthesia in which visual motion elicits auditory percepts. In this Dispatch, I discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of the mechanisms whereby the brain integrates sight and sound more broadly.


Hubbard, E.M. (2007). A real red letter day. Nature Neuroscience. 10(6):671-672 (doi: 10.1038/nn0607-671).

This is a News and Views on Rouw and Scholte (2007).Increased structural connectivity in grapheme-color synesthesia. Nature Neuroscience, 10(6):792 – 797. They used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate increased connectivity underlies synesthetic experiences, and individual differences between synesthetes, nicely confirming a number of our predictions (see e.g., Hubbard and Ramachandran, 2005; Ramachandran and Hubbard, 2001, below).

Hubbard, E.M. (2007). Neurophysiology of synesthesia. Current Psychiatry Reports. 9(3): 193-199 (10.1007/s11920-007-0018-6).


Simner, J. & Hubbard, E.M. (2006) Variants of synesthesia interact in cognitive tasks: Evidence for implicit associations and late connectivity in cross-talk theories Neuroscience, 143(3):805-814 (doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.08.018).

Thirion, B., Duchesnay, E., Hubbard, E.M., Dubois, J., Poline, J.-B., Lebihan, D. & Dehaene, S. (2006). Inverse retinotopy: Inferring the visual content of images from brain activation patterns. Neuroimage. 33(4):1104-1116 (10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.06.062).

Hubbard, E.M., Manohar, S. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2006). Contrast affects the strength of synesthetic colors. Cortex: Special Issue on Synesthesia (Jason Mattingley and Jamie Ward, Eds.), 42(2): 184-194 (doi:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70343-5).


Hubbard, E.M. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2005). Neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia. Neuron, 48(3): 509-520 (doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.10.012).

Hubbard, E.M., Piazza, M. Pinel, P. & Dehaene, S. (2005). Interactions between numbers and space in parietal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6): 435-448. (doi:10.1038/nrn1684)

Hubbard, E.M., Arman, A.C., Ramachandran, V.S. & Boynton, G.M. (2005). Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes: Brain-behavior correlations.Neuron, 45(6): 975-985 (doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.02.008). Supplementary Materials

Also see the very nice commentary on our findings by Mike Dixon and Dan Smilek.The importance of individual differences in grapheme-color synesthesia. Neuron,45(6):821-823.

Secondary summaries of our work have appeared in Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Lancet Neurology and Clinical Neurology News

Ramachandran, V.S. & Hubbard, E.M. (2005). Hearing colors, tasting shapes. Scientific American Mind, 16-23.

Oberman, L.M., Hubbard, E.M., McCleery, J.P. Altschuler, E.L., Ramachandran, V.S. & Pineda, J.A. (2005). EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Cognitive Brain Research, 24(2): 190-198. (doi:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.01.014)


Hubbard, E.M. & Ramachandrdan, V.S. (2004). The size-weight illusion, emulation, and the cerebellum. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27(3): 407-408 (doi: 10.1017/S0140525X04320091).

This is a commentary on Grush, R. (2004). The emulation theory of representation: Motor control, imagery, and perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.


Ramachandran, V.S. & Hubbard, E.M. (2003). The phenomenology of synaesthesia. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10(8): 49–57.

Hubbard, E.M. & Ramachandran, V.S. (2003). Refining the experimental lever: A reply to Shannnon and Pribram.Journal of Consciousness Studies,9(3):77-84.

This article is a reply to two commentaries on our original JCS paper, Synesthesia: A window into perception thought and language (see below). For the original commentaries, see Shannon Commentary and Pribram Commentary.

Ramachandran, V.S. & Hubbard, E.M. (2003). Hearing colors, tasting shapes. Scientific American, 52-59.

Hubbard, E.M. (2003). A discussion and review of Uttal (2001). Cognitive Science Online,1(1):22-33.


Ramachandran, V.S. & Hubbard, E.M. (2001b). Synaesthesia: A window into perception, thought and language. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(12), 3 – 34.

Ramachandran, V.S. & Hubbard, E.M. (2001a). Psychophysical investigations into the neural basis of synaesthesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 268, 979-983 (10.1098/rspb.2000.1576).


Anderson, D.I, Hubbard, E.M., Campos, J.J, Barbu-Roth, M.A., Witherington, D. & Hertenstein, M.J. (2000). Probabilistic epigenesis, experience, and psychological development in infancy. Infancy. 1(2), 245-251 (doi: 10.1207/S15327078IN0102_6).

Campos, J.J., Anderson, D.I, Barbu-Roth, M.A., Hubbard, E.M., Hertenstein, M.J, & Witherington, M. (2000) Travel broadens the mind. Infancy, 1(2): 149-219 (doi: 10.1207/S15327078IN0102_1).

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