D e s i g n i n g G a m e - B a s e d L e a r n i n g E n v i r o n m e n t s

Videogames have emerged as an important new medium, shaping how we play, interact, and learn. Games push the boundaries of consumer-grade simulation, interactive narrative, the design of virtual communities, and the formation of a global media culture. Games make it possible to lead virtual civilizations, be an international fiancier, or even explore an electric field from the perspective of a charged particle. My research interest is in how such gaming technologies can be used to support learning in educational settings. This work has three overlapping components: (1) Researching learning through participation in game-based learning environments, (2) The analysis of games and game cultures in naturally occurring contexts, and (3) The design of original game-based media for learning.

I still have my dissertation Replaying History files online and just posted my tenure materials.

L e a r n i n g i n G a m e - B a s e d E n v i r o n m e n t s

A generation of kids have grown up learning history not through books or television but through historical simulation games like Civilization or Age of Empires. We live in a culture of simulation where ideas (such as military history) are investigated, represented, and communicated through interactive digital media. Yet we know little about how learning through such interactive systems changes players' thinking about the ideas at hand. This design-based research examines such issues while also creating opportunities for students poorly served through traditional schooling to learn history through playing and modding the historical simulation game Civilization III. We are interested in: the processes by which players develop an interest in history, what historical understandings develop, and if participation has consequences for activites such as school.


Representative Publications:

Squire, K., & Durga, S. (in press). Productive gaming: The case for historiographic game play. To appear in R. Ferdig (Ed.) The handbook of educational gaming. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Squire, K.D., DeVane, B. & Durga, S. (in press). Designing centers of expertise for academic learning through video games. To appear in Theory Into Practice.

Squire, K. (2007). Games, learning, and society: Building a field. Educational Technology, 4(5), 51-54.

Squire, K., & Durga, S. (in press). Productive gaming: The case for historiographic game play. To appear in R. Ferdig (Ed.) The handbook of educational gaming. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Squire, K. (2008). Open-ended video games: A model for developing learning for the interactive age. In K. Salen (Ed.) The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation series on digital media and learning. (167-198) Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Squire, K.D. (2006). From content to context: Video games as designed experiences. Educational Researcher, 35(8), 19-29.

Squire, K.D. Giovanetto, L., DeVane, B. & Durga, S. (2005). From users to designers: Building a self-organizing game-based learning environment. Technology Trends 49(5), 34-42.

Squire, K.D. (2005). Changing the game: What happens when videogames enter the classroom?. Innovate 1(6).

Shaffer, D. W., Squire, K.D., Halverson, R., & Gee, J.P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(2), 105-111.

Squire, K.D. (2005). Toward a theory of games literacy. Telemedium 52 (1-2), 9-15.

Squire, K. & Jenkins, H. (2004). Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight (3)1, 5-33.

Squire, K.D. (2002). Rethinking the role of games in education. Game Studies, 2(1). Last retrieved August 31 2005 from http://gamestudies.org/0201/Squire/.

Squire, K. (2003). Video games in education. International Journal of Intelligent Simulations and Gaming (2) 1.


A n a l y s e s o f G a m e s a n d G a m e s C u l t u r e

Games and their attendant social structures are a push "technologies," changing the way we play, interact, and learn. As designed objects, games push the boundaries of consumer-grade simulation, interactive media design, and the globalization of media. As cultures, guilds, FAQs, and fan communities also push practices such as media production, participation in distributed knowledge building communities, and literacies with models and simulations. We argue that these cultural practices offer both critiques of traditional educational practices and new models for the social organization of education. As such, this research examines both games as designed artifacts as well as games cultures and speaks to game studies as well as education.


Representative Publications:

Squire, K. & Giovanetto, L. (in press). The higher education of gaming. To appear in elearning.

DeVane, B. & Squire, K. (in press). The Meaning of Race and Violence in Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. To appear in Games & Culture.

Squire, K. (in press). Video games literacy: A literacy of expertise. To appear in J. Coiro, M. Knobel, D. Leu, & C. Lankshear, Handbook of research on new media literacies. New York: MacMillan.

Jenkins, H. & Squire. K. (2007). Applied game theory: Innovation, diversity, experimentation in contemporary game design. In A. Jahn-Sudmann (Ed). Games without frontiers.

Squire, K. (in press). Critical education in an interactive age. To appear in Diana Silberman Keller, (Ed). Mirror Reflections: Popular culture and education. NY: Peter Lang Publishers.

Squire, K. D. & Steinkuehler, C. A. (2006). Generating CyberCulture/s: The case of Star Wars Galaxies. In D. Gibbs & K. L. Krause (Eds.), Cyberlines 2.0 Languages and cultures of the Internet (177-198). Albert Park, Australia: James Nicholas Publishers.

Squire, K.D. (in press). Civilization III as a world history sandbox. To appear in Civilization and its discontents. Virtual history. Real fantasies. Milan, Italy. Ludilogica Press. Now in Italian!

Squire, K. & Steinkuehler, C.A. (2005). Meet the gamers. Library Journal.

Squire, K.D. (2005). Educating the fighter. On the Horizon 13(2), 75-88.

Jenkins, H. & Squire, K.D. (2002). The Art of Contested Spaces. In L. King, (Ed.) Game On!. London: Barbican Press.


D e s i g n i n gD i g i t a l G a m e s f o r L e a r n i n g

Videogames are emerging as a new medium for learning. Advances in modding technologies, graphic libraries, and game editors are making the creation of educational gaming a multi-million dollar industry. However, how to create effective game-based learning experiences remains not well understood. Games demand both pedagogies and new software development processes. As researchers, design-based approaches can give us key insights into how the medium operates and how people learn through interactions with media. These studies investigate game-based learning design methods, processes, and theory.


Representative Publications:

Squire, K.D. (in press). Game-based learning: An emerging paradigm for learning. To appear in Performance Improvement Quarterly.

Squire, K. (in press). From information to experience: Place-based augmented reality games as a model for learning in a globally networked society. To appear in Teacher’s College Record.

Squire K.D. & Jan, M. (2007). Mad City Mystery: Developing scientific argumentation skills with a place-based augmented reality game on handheld computers. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1) 5-29.

Squire, K., & Klopfer, E. (2007). Augmented reality simulations on handheld computers. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16(3), 371 - 413.

Squire, K. (in press). Video Games and education: Designing learning systems for an interactive age. To appear in Educational Technology.

Squire, K. (in press). Artists in the medium. To appear in R. Ferdig (Ed.) The handbook of educational gaming. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Squire, K.D., Jan, M., Matthews, J., Wagler, M., Martin, J., Devane, B. & Holden, C. (2007). Wherever you go, there you are: The design of local games for learning. In B. Sheldon & D. Wiley (Eds). The design and use of simulation computer games in education, (265-296). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishing.

Klopfer, E. & Squire, K. (in press). Developing a platform for augmented reality gaming. To appear in Educational Technology Research & Development.

Squire, K.D. (2005). Resuscitating research in educational technology: Using game-based learning research as a lens for looking at design-based research. Educational Technology 45(1), 8-14.

Shaffer, D. W., & Squire, K. D. (2006). The Pasteurization of education. In Education and Technology: Issues in Policy, Administration and Application. London: Elsevier.

Barab, S.A. & Squire, K.D. (2004). Design-based research: Putting a stake in the ground. Journal of the Learning Sciences.

Jenkins, H. Squire, K. & Tan, P. (2004). You can’t bring that game to school!: Designing Supercharged! In B. Laurel (Ed.) Design Research. Cambridge, MIT Press.

Klopfer, E. & Squire, K., Jenkins, H. (2004). Environmental Detectives: PDAs as a window into a virtual simulated world. In Kerres, M., Kalz, M., Stratmann, J., de Witt, C. Eds,Didaktik der Notebook-Universität, (pp.259-274). Münster:Waxmann Verlag.

Jenkins, H., Klopfer, E., Squire, K. & Tan, P. (2003). Entering the education arcade. Computers in Entertainment 1(1).

Holland, W., Jenkins, H. & Squire, K. (2003). Theory by design. In Perron, B., and Wolf, M. (Eds). Video Game Theory. Routledge.

Games-to-Teach Team. (2003). Design principles of next-generation digital gaming for education. Educational Technology, 43(5), 17-33.


P r e v i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y R e s e a r c h

Before turning to games, my research focused on the design of learning environments based on socially situated learning theory, instructional theory for emerging pedagogies, and systemic change theory. These ranged from studies of learning in problem-based learning environments, studies of community-based pre-service teacher education programs, and case studies and theories of systemic change.


Representative Publications:

Squire, K.D. & Johnson, C.B. (2003). Using interactive television to enhance authenticity in K-12 REALs: Two case studies. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning, 13(5-6), pp. 454-470.

Squire, K.D., Makinster, J., Barnett, M., Barab, A.L., & Barab, S.A. (2003). Designed Curriculum and Local Culture: Acknowledging the Primacy of Classroom Culture. Science Education. 87:1– 22.

Barab, S. A., Barnett, M., & Squire, K. (2002). Preparing pre-service teachers: Developing an empirical account of a community of practice. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 11(4), 489-542.

Barab, S., A., Barnett, M., Yamagata-Lynch, L., Squire, K., & Keating, T. (2002). Using activity theory to understand the contradictions characterizing a technology-rich introductory astronomy course. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 9(2), 76–107.

Barab, S. A., Hay, K. E., Barnett, M. G., & Squire, K. (2001). Constructing Virtual Worlds: Tracing the Historical Development of Learner Practices/Understandings. Cognition and Instruction.19(1), 47-94.

Squire, K.D. & Johnson, C.B. (2000). Supporting Distributed Communities of Practice with Interactive Television. Educational Technology Research & Development, (48),1, p. 23-44.

Squire, K. D. & Reigeluth, C. M. (2000). The Many Faces of Systemic Change. Educational Horizons, 78(3), p. 143-152.

Barab, S. A., Squire, K., & Dueber, B. (2000). Supporting authenticity through participatory learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(2), p. 37-62.

Barab, S. A., Hay, K. E., Squire, K., Barnett, M., Schmidt, R., Karrigan, K., Yamagata-Lynch, L., & Johnson, C. (2000). Virtual solar system project: Learning through a technology-rich, inquiry-based, participatory learning environment. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 9(1), 7-25.

Squire, K. D. (1999). Opportunity Initiated Systems Design. Systems Practice and Action Research. 12(6), p. 633-648.

Reigeluth, C. M. & Squire, K. D. (1998) Emerging Work in the New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Educational Technology, July.